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Python Documentation Index

Python Essays

In this directory I place short essays (anything from 500 to 5000 words) on various Python subjects. See also a collection of presentations I have given. See also my blog at and my previous blog at

--Guido van Rossum

Table of contents (in mostly chronological order)

  • Unifying types and classes in Python 2.2

    An introduction to the type/class unification effort in Python 2.2. Note that the unification work is officially labeled experimental and is subject to change in future releases of Python.

  • Parade of the PEPs

    To start off Developer's Day at the Python10 conference I gave a keynote ending in what I dubbed "the parade of the PEPs". It was a brief overview of all open PEPs, where I gave my highly personal and subjective opinion for each PEP. Later, I realized that this might have been of interest to other developers. I didn't take notes at the conference, so below is a different set of comments that I created from scratch during a single two-hour sitting on March 7, 2002. I intend to occasionally update this with new comments and new PEPs.